The Attributes

The five attributes of effective formative assessment:

  1. Learning Progressions. Learning progressions should clearly articulate the sub-goals of the ultimate learning goal.
  2. Learning Goals and Criteria for Success. Learning goals and criteria for success should be clearly identified and communicated to students.
  3. Descriptive Feedback. Students should be provided with evidence-based feedback that is linked to the intended instructional outcomes and criteria for success.
  4. Self- and Peer Assessment. Both self- and peer assessment are important for providing students an opportunity to think meta-cognitively about their learning.
  5. Collaboration. A classroom culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning should be established.


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Left: The concepts of formative assessment, as a series of three questions that students and teachers should be answering as they proceed through the learning.



Below: The attributes of formative assessment as they relate to the three questions and the “owners” of the attribute. Notice the differentiation between the individual student and the collaborative concept of the peer as a partner in learning. 

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