The ten dimensions are all clustered around the central focus, which is using evidence to adjust instruction, or formative assessment. In the rubric, each dimension is defined, the essential actions and activities of students are articulated, and a series of indicators clarifying the specific indicators within each level.
For more information about the FARROP itself, visit the FARROP tab.
I. Learning Goals
- Learning Goals should be clearly identified and communicated to students, and should help students make connections among lessons within a larger sequence.
- Learning goals should be aligned to CCSS, or state or district grade-level standards, although this dimension focuses on how the teacher identifies the learning goals for a particular lesson, communicates them to the students, and uses them in a way that supports learning.
- Research suggests that when students understand the intended learning of a lesson they are better prepared to engage with the content and learning is positively impacted.
- At the lower ends of the rubric, learning goals are not used, are used in a pro forma manner, or do not set appropriately challenging goals for students, while at the higher levels learning goals are integrated into the lesson and support student learning.
II. Criteria for Success
- Criteria for Success should be clearly identified and communicated to students. This dimension focuses on how the teacher identifies the criteria for success for a particular lesson and communicates them to the students.
- Research suggests that when students understand what quality work actually looks like they are more able to demonstrate their own learning.
- In this rubric, the focus is primarily on the sharing of explicit expectations (e.g., rubrics, preflight checklists, exemplars etc.) that communicate quality. At the lower ends of the rubric, criteria for success are not used, are used in a pro forma manner, or do not hold students to sufficiently high expectations, while at the higher levels criteria for success are integrated into the lesson, are accessible to students, and support student learning.
III. Tasks and Activities to Elicit Evidence of Learning
- The focus of this dimension is on those things with which students engage that potentially produce evidence of student learning (excluding classroom discussions)
- Teachers need to use a range of tasks and activities to collect relevant evidence of student thinking. When students are engaged in tasks and activities (on their own, with another student, or in a small group) the work products provide evidence of student understanding.
- In order to be effective, students need to have access to appropriate support from either the teacher or from peers to complete the task. In addition, the teacher needs to have a mechanism for synthesizing evidence from students, whether through a formal review process or informal on the- fly review.
IV. Questioning Strategies to Elicit Evidence of Learning
- The focus of this dimension is on one way that a teacher can collect evidence of student progress through classroom questioning. Teachers need to use a range of questioning strategies to collect relevant evidence of student thinking, from more students, more often, and more systematically.
- Often teachers ask questions only to a few interested students, answer their own questions, or limit student thinking by the type of questions asked. If a teacher has weak questioning strategies, s/he loses opportunities to gain valuable insights into student learning. Teachers can elicit evidence of student thinking by the types of questions students ask of the teacher and peers, as well.
V. Extending Thinking During Discourse
- Students should be provided with ongoing feedback that helps them develop ideas and understanding of the content. This dimension focuses on the teacher’s role to provide ongoing feedback during class discussions.
- The rubrics include three dimensions that address distinct aspects of feedback: this dimension is specific to more informal feedback that often occurs in real-time during a lesson.
VI. Descriptive Feedback
- Students should be provided with evidence-based feedback that is linked to the intended instructional outcomes and criteria for success. This dimension focuses on the teacher’s role to provide individualized feedback to students.
- Research suggests that student learning improves when students are provided with descriptive feedback that is connected to clear targets and that provides guidance on how to improve work.
- The rubrics include three dimensions that address distinct aspects of feedback: this dimension is specific to more formal feedback that tends to be given to individual students on a specific piece of work, either in written form or orally (e.g., during student/teacher conferences) by the teacher.
VII. Peer Feedback
- Peer review and feedback is important for providing students an opportunity to think about the work of their peers. Research suggests that opportunities to review the work of a peer and to provide feedback are very beneficial to the person providing the feedback, as well as to the person receiving the feedback.
- The rubrics include three dimensions that address distinct aspects of feedback: this dimension includes the role of student-to-student feedback, while various approaches to teacher feedback are addressed in Feedback Loops and Individualized Descriptive Feedback.
- Self-assessment is important because it provides students with an opportunity to think meta-cognitively about their learning.
- Research suggests that improved understanding of one’s own learning is a critical strategy that can lead to improvements in learning.
IX. Collaborative Culture of Learning
- A classroom culture in which teachers and students are partners in learning should be established. Research suggests that classrooms that promote thinking and learning, student autonomy, and students as learning resources for one anotherare more successful in encouraging lifelong learners.
X. Use of Evidence to Inform Instruction
- Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended instructional outcomes. This dimension focuses on the teacher use of evidence to adjust instruction across the lesson(s) as a whole.